Some Facts About MR's World
The prevalence of mental retardetion is estimated to be 3% of the world's totel population.
Nearly 4% of the children with mental retardation have multiple disability.
Only a few percentages of mentally challenged children receive education and training according to their potentials in specail techniques.
Early identification of mental retardation and early intervention ensures greater impovement.
Did You Know That
Developmental Disability is not a disease but a condition.
It is neither curable nor contagious but it can be managed. Early intervention can improve outcomes.
Many persons with such disabilities have excelled as authors, sports persons, software professionals, bank managers, scientists etc
Mental Retardation is a delay, or slowness, in a childís mental development. The child with mental retardation learns things more slowly than other children of the same age. In the beginning he may be late to smile, to move, to show interest in things, use his hands, sit, walk, speak, and understand or he may develop some of these skills more quickly, but be slower in others. To explain further, a child with mental retardation faces difficulties in learning, in using past experiences for the solution of present problems. He finds it difficult to remember, to understand and adjust to different situations. He does not develop mentally or even physically at the same rate as other children of the same age. For example, a child may be 8 years old but may have the abilities of a 4 or 5 year old child, or a 12 year old child may behave like a 4-5 year old or even less.
Can marriage be a cure for mental retardation?
Marriage is not a cure for mental retardation.
Categories of Mental Retardation
Persons with mental retardation have been categorized into mild, moderate, severe and profound categories depending on the degree of mental retardation. Many of these children, if given suitable and timely training may learn to take care of their basic needs like drinking, eating, bathing, dressing etc. There will however be some children who will always need to be cared for in some ways.
Persons with mild mental retardation
A large number of people who are mentally retarded fall in the category of mild mental retardation. With early diagnosis, parental assistance and special educational programmes, a majority of them can adjust socially, master simple academic and occupational skills, which includes skills like tending to cattle, milking, farm work and other local and family occupations and become self supporting citizens. In areas where no special education facilities are available, these children may be taught to learn
Persons with moderate mental retardation
The maximum number of mentally retarded people fall in this category. An adult with moderate mental retardation has the intelligence of a 4 to 7 year old child. Some of them may be taught to read, write or even speak fairly well. They may suffer from physical deformities and poor coordination of the legs, arms, hands and fingers. With timely intervention they can be trained to achieve some amount of independence in self-care, social behaviour and economic usefulness in the family occupation or in a sheltered environment.
Persons with severe mental retardation
In a person with severe mental retardation, speech and movements of the arms and legs are severely affected and sensory difficulties are common. They can develop limited levels of personal hygiene and self help skills. But they require supervision in managing simple skills. Some of them can be trained in simple repetitive tasks.
Persons with profound mental retardation
Persons with profound mental retardation can learn only the simplest of tasks with great difficulty. Speech is at a basic rudimentary level. Severe physical deformities, retarded growth, speech difficulties, visual problems, deafness, fits and other physical problems are quite common. Their resistance to disease may be very low and their life expectancy may be short. However, there is improvement in the childís health condition with latest treatment methods. People with profound mental retardation need to be cared for throughout their lives.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions):
Will he be able to read and write like other children?
Majority of children with mental retardation will be able to learn basic reading, writing and arithmetic, which are essential for daily living. Some persons with mental retardation are now completing high school through open learning systems and integrated education.
Can we send our child to a regular school for education?
There are some mainstream schools who offer special training/education to children with mental retardation. If that facility is available, then the child can be sent to the regular school. Otherwise, the child has to be sent to a special school for education. Special teachers are trained to teach children with mental retardation. They use special methods, techniques and material to teach children in basic skills that are essential for independent living. More and more mainstream schools are admitting students with mental retardation especially under the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan project.
Will he be able to earn his livelihood?
With systematic and timely intervention, many persons with mental retardation will be able to perform skilled, semiskilled and repetitive jobs and will be able to partially or completely support themselves financially.
What is his life span?
Mental retardation by itself does not reduce the life span. A lot depends on the cause, severity of mental retardation, associated medical problems and the level of care given. Due to the advancements in medical care, the life span of persons with mental retardation has shown an increase in recent years.
Cerebral Palsy means damage to the brain. A Person with Cerebral Palsy generally has more than one impairment. Drugs and surgery cannot cure this condition. Early detection and training is vital. Early intervention of a child with cerebral palsy focuses on speech, movement and education. This is done using the services of Physio, Occupational and Speech Therapists, Community Based Rehabilitation Workers and Special Educators.
It will help a child with Cerebral Palsy to achieve:
- Motor skills
- Speech and communication
- Self-help skills
- Social skills
The Rights of Persons with Cerebral Palsy are the same as that of any other person. For example Right to Life with Dignity, Right to Information & Communication, Right to recreation, Right to Education, right to Mobility, Right to Health, Right to Family Life and so on.
Cerebral Palsy is NOT
- Usually hereditary
- Primary cause of death
Different parts of the brain perform different functions.
For example: Coming to sit, hand functions, eye-hand
For example: Temperature, pain, pressure
Ability to think, learn, memorise, understand
Therefore damage to the brain leads to multiple impairment. Thus no two children with cerebral palsy are ever alike.
Types of Cerebral Palsy
Tense, contracted muscles (most common type of C.P).
Constant, uncontrolled motion of limbs, head, eyes.
Tight muscles that resist efforts to make them move.
Poor sense of balance, often causing falls and stumbles
Uncontrollable shaking, interfering with coordination
There may also be a combination of vision, speech, hearing and learning problems.
Hold my hand and
Include me in your lilfe.
Donít scorn me
for it will hurt-
Teachable, trainable and I am Educable-
In fact useful and handicapable-
O No! - I AM NOT
helpless and Problematic
But I AM
Active and Quiet Energetic
Cast me into an eternity of total dependency
Nor lure me into the world of fantasy
I have disability and I donít deny its reality
Nevertheless I must not resign
To a life of pity
reside on the fringes of society.
Bless the skills that I have got
Donít focus on what i have not.
Of course I am aware of my limitions
Yet I am a part of Godís wonderful creation.
so i come with MY ABILITY
To demonstrate my
Productivity And Responsility.
Let us be the pioneers in discovering abilities of the
lead a life of dignity through this inclusive education